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Category: Politicians

546. rodolfo moreno

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Rodolfo Moreno

Born in 1879 in Buenos Aires to dual immigrant parents —his father from Chile, his mother from Brazil— Rodolfo Moreno received a doctorate in law at the age of 21. Afterwards he taught civil & criminal law classes at universities in both La Plata & Buenos Aires… at the same time. A gift for writing allowed him opportunities direct a local newspaper as well as publish a 7-volume work about criminal law, his specialty.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Rodolfo Moreno

Law in Argentina has often been a stepping stone into the political arena, & Moreno soon moved away from university teaching. In 1914, he became a minister in the provincial Buenos Aires government. For most of the 1920s, Moreno served as a representative (diputado) in Congress for the same province. And in the 1930s, he jumped around from position to position, but one of Moreno’s most interesting assignments was ambassador to Japan… in 1939 & 1940 just as World War II erupted. After the war, Moreno would publish a book about his experience there.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Rodolfo Moreno

In the midst of electoral fraude scandals in the 1940s, Moreno became governor of Buenos Aires province for a little over a year. He even assigned Roberto Noble (of later Clarín fame) as one of his ministers. Moreno sought to take on Ramón Castillo for his conservative party’s nomination for President of Argentina but never got far. The volatile political climate of the 1940s forced Moreno to resign as governor in 1943, he left in exile to Uruguay the following year, then he returned to Argentina during the Perón era. But Moreno never served in political office again & passed away in Buenos Aires in 1953.

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543. diego de alvear

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Diego de Alvear

As a rule, important families placed their mausoleums along the wider walkways of Recoleta Cemetery for maximum impact… but of course exceptions exist to every rule. Perhaps no other space was available at the time of construction, but that didn’t mean this branch of the Alvear family couldn’t build on a grand scale. Just not as many people discover it today.

Diego Estanislao de Alvear came from a long line of Argentina’s founding fathers. The family hailed from Andalucía where his great-great-grandfather founded the famous Alvear winery in Montilla (near Córdoba, photos below). Diego’s grandfather held a high position in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata & defended Spain against the forces of Napoleon in Cádiz, after losing most family & possessions when the frigate Mercedes was sunk by British naval forces. Diego’s father, Carlos María de Alvear, was not on board the Mercedes & went on to help Argentina proclaim independence from Spain. He’s buried at the entrance of the cemetery for all to see.

España, Andalucía, Montilla, Bodegas Alvear
España, Andalucía, Montilla, Bodegas Alvear
España, Andalucía, Montilla, Bodegas Alvear

Diego de Alvear passed away in 1887 after marrying into an even richer family, founding the Club del Progreso & serving in the Senate. The family hired French architect Albert Ballu to design their grand mausoleum in 1889, who would also be responsible for the Argentina pavilion at the World Expo in Paris that same year. So grand & inspiring, the pavilion was deconstructed, shipped to Argentina & rebuilt on Plaza San Martín to become a new home to the Museo de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires. The family certainly knew how to pick the most popular architect for the time.

Even more surprising is the interior sculpture, difficult to appreciate due to the mausoleum’s doors. But take a peek inside. Signed by Jules Roulleau in 1889, four figures of women in mourning surround a bust of Diego de Alvear. Some sources claim them to be sisters, but since he only had three they are likely allegorical representations of sorrow.

How to find this hidden masterpiece? Look for the dome… while on the main walkway between the central Christ statue & Rufina Cambacérès (also on the way to Eva Perón), look up & left to find a large dome & you’re almost there:

More photos of this fantastic & forgotten mausoleum on Alejandro Machado’s blog dedicated to French architects in Argentina.

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541. manuel j. campos ◊

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

One of 17 children—four destined to occupy high-ranking positions in the military—Manuel Jorge Campos participated in many of the major events of his day. Breaking from the influence of older brother General Luis María Campos & establishing a distinguished career of his own, the current condition of Manuel’s tomb suggests that history has perhaps forgotten his many contributions to Argentina… just compare with Luis María five mausoleums away.

As a young man, Manuel fought & was injured in several battles during the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. Plaques at the mausoleum’s base depict those struggles:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

He also helped squash the several rebellions of Buenos Aires against the national government as well as assisted Julio Argentino Roca in the fight to acquire land from the indigenous population in 1879. But his most historic claim to fame is a still-unconfirmed conspiracy which made the 1890 Revolution against the national government fail. Manuel Campos conspired with revolutionaries, gained their trust & became their military leader. Arrested & jailed shortly before the day of attack, President Roca visited Campos in his cell… historians believe some sneaky plans formed as a result of that meeting.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

From his cell, Campos ordered the revolution to continue & fighting broke out in Buenos Aires. Only lasting four days, hundreds of people died including another Campos brother, Julio. Many believe that Campos made bad tactical decisions on purpose, throwing the revolution so Roca & his elite allies could remain in power. In spite of leading a rebellion, Campos never received any punishment. In fact, he spent the rest of his life in politics as either a Representative or Senator, supporting modernization of the military as proposed by fellow general Pablo Riccheri. On the back wall, a large plaque given by the legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires commemorates that service:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

Of artistic merit is one of the few surviving works in Buenos Aires by Spanish painter & sculptor José Llaneces. Contemporary of Joaquín Sorolla & favored by the Spanish royal family at the beginning of the 20th century, Llaneces painted a series of murals for the Jockey Club… all destroyed in the 1953 fire set by Peronistas. A monument to Hipólito Vieytes by Llaneces sits in the neighborhood of Barracas, unseen & forgotten. The cemetery’s sculpture depicts a shrouded woman guiding a fallen soldier to heaven, perhaps Campos himself. The mausoleum received a write-up in a 1912 edition of the Spanish magazine Mundo Gráfico:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces, Mundo Gráfico
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces, Mundo Gráfico
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540. tomás guido

Occupying a prime piece of cemetery space—a wide, main axis close to the central Cristo Redentor statue—this mausoleum also attracts lots of attention thanks to an interesting design. Unfortunately its first occupant no longer resides here; you’ll have to go to the cathedral on Plaza de Mayo to pay your respects. Read on…

Born in 1788, Tomás Guido witnessed or participated in almost every major event during the creation of Argentina as an independent, new nation. He started young, defending Buenos Aires from both British invasions in 1806 & 1807 at the age of 18. Guido later accompanied Mariano Moreno on a diplomatic mission to the UK & was on board when Moreno passed away at sea. During independence wars, Guido traveled to Tucumán where he became a secretary & befriended both José de San Martín & Manuel Belgrano. Memoirs of his time with San Martín became an invaluable historic document, published in 1816. Over time, he would advance in rank & participate in the liberation of what we know as Chile & Perú.

Returning to Buenos Aires, Guido worked with the Rivadavia government during the war with Brazil. He continued to be appointed by successive leaders such as Manuel Dorrego, Juan Lavalle, Juan José Viamonte & surprisingly by both Juan Manuel de Rosas & Justo José de Urquiza at different moments. Usually involved in diplomacy & international relations, Guido passed away in 1866 in Buenos Aires after negotiating a peace agreement between Paraguay & the United States just a few years prior. His last wish was to be buried in the Andes, in remembrance of his time fighting for South American independence.

Legend claims that Guido’s second youngest child, Carlos Spano y Guido, felt so committed to his father’s final wish that he had stones brought from the Andes to build this mausoleum. We’ve yet to see any hard proof, but it’s a wonderful story. Some even insist that Carlos built the tomb himself by hand. Again, unlikely but hey… sounds great! The design of the tomb fits an era when romantic ideas were combined with images of nature, & the pintoresco style was born. Just check out a nearby tomb to Gregorio Torres with an almost identical wrought-iron door:

On the 100th anniversary of his death, descendants of Tomás Guido authorized the national government to move his remains. Guido keeps company once again with San Martín in the cathedral of Buenos Aires:

An important figure in his own right, Carlos Spano y Guido & his descendants remain buried here. Guido y Spano wrote well-received romantic prose & became director of the National Archive (plaque below dedicated to his passing). He also worked to found the Sociedad Protectora de Animales with José Pérez Mendoza. In 1946, this tomb was designated a National Historic Monument by the Perón government.

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537. familia olegario v. andrade

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

During the period of national organization after independence from Spain, many families had to make a difficult decision: support a Confederation of provinces or a Buenos Aires-based government. Escalating into civil war, factions split between Urquiza & Rosas… in fact, many people on both sides are buried in Recoleta Cemetery & this blog dedicates a lot of text to this period. Based in the province of Entre Ríos & firm Urquiza supporters, the Andrade family was forced to leave Argentina. They made their way to neighboring Brazil where Olegario Víctor Andrade was born in 1839. After the 1853 defeat of Rosas, his family returned to Argentina & settled in the riverside town of Gualeguaychú.

Olegario finished his early studies in the nearby town of Concepción del Uruguay & became friends with a future President Julio Argentino Roca… as well as with others who would go on to become important national leaders such as Victorino de la Plaza & Eduardo Wilde. Olegario demonstrated a gift for writing poetry even at this early age, often writing about national events. Although he worked in journalism at first, he eventually moved into provincial politics. In 1859 at the age of 21, Andrade became personal secretary for President Santiago Derqui & put his pen to good use in criticizing Bartolomé Mitre & the War of the Triple Alliance.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

Although his political career continued with a number of ups & downs, Andrade achieved major recognition for his poem “El nido de cóndores” which was read to the public at the Teatro Colón in 1877. This work uses an imaginary dialogue with condors to praise the crossing of the Andes by José de San Martín & his troops during independence. A monument in Plaza San Martín in Andrade’s hometown of Gualeguaychú commemorates this very poem:

Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos, Plaza San Martín, Olegario Víctor Andrade, El Nido de Cóndores

Andrade continued to write epic historical poetry. Of note is “San Martín“, discussing the general’s move to Europe & consequent disappearance from national narrative. This poem was written when Sarmiento repatriated the general’s remains in 1877, & the section below addresses the recovery of San Martín’s rightful place in national history:

¡Salud al vencedor! ¡Salud al grande
Entre los grandes héroes! Exclamaban
Civiles turbas, militares greyes,
Con ardiente alborozo,
En la vieja ciudad de los Virreyes.–
Y el vencedor huía,
Con firme paso y actitud serena,
A confiar a las ondas de los mares
Los profundos secretos de su pena.–

La ingratitud, la envidia,
La sospecha cobarde, que persiguen
Como nubes tenaces,
Al sol del genio humano,
Fueron siguiendo el rastro de sus pasos
A través del Oceano,
Ansiosas de cerrarle los caminos
Del poder y la gloria,
¡Sin acordarse, ¡torpes! de cerrarle
El seguro camino de la historia!

……….

Here’s to the victor! Here’s to the greatest
Among all great heroes! Exclaimed
Multitudes of citizens, military troops,
With heartfelt joy,
In the old city of the Vicerroys.-
And the victor fled,
With convincing step and serene demeanor,
To trust to the waves of the seas
The deep secrets of his sorrow.-

Ingratitude, envy,
Cowardly suspicion, that followed
Like tenacious clouds,
To the sun of human genius,
They pursued the track of his footsteps
Across the Ocean,
Anxious to block the path
Of power and glory,
Without remembering, fools!, to close off
The sure path of history!

Andrade passed away from a stroke in 1882. His former high school friend Roca—then President—spoke at the funeral, & five years later Congress published a compilation of Andrade’s works. Today however, those works are unfortunately less well known as can be seen by the poor condition of his family mausoleum (in spite of being declared a National Historic Monument). Also buried here are his daughter, Agustina, & her husband, Ramón Lista, an early explorer of Patagonia who deserves a post of his own. Perhaps next month…

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

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533. josefa v. de pujol

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Juan Gregorio Pujol

Built initially for his wife, Juan Gregorio Pujol found his way here too after passing away in 1861. Born in the province of Corrientes in 1817—just after Argentina earned its independence—much of Pujol’s life coincided with the new nation’s struggles.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Juan Gregorio Pujol

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Juan Gregorio Pujol

Pujol graduated from the University of Córdoba with a law degree in 1838. After returning to Corrientes, Pujol obtained various government positions until named Governor in 1852. He worked with Justo José de Urquiza & Santiago Derqui to write a constitution that would be acceptable to Buenos Aires… always seen as problematic due to the region’s overwhelming economic power. Pujol did much to promote education & favor local trade in Corrientes, including aligning the province with Paraguay’s dictator, Francisco Solano López. Anything to avoid siding with Buenos Aires! In the end, Pujol had severe disagreements with Carlos Tejedor & Bartolomé Mitre & foresaw the coming civil war.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Juan Gregorio Pujol

Pujol died in August 1861, still serving as Governor of Corrientes & one month before the Battle of Pavón ended the Confederación Argentina which he had supported & served his entire life. But Pujol’s most widely recognized contribution to Argentina was establishing mail service in Corrientes in 1856 along with the first postage stamp used in national territory:

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