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Endless Mile, Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery guide

The list of occupants of Recoleta Cemetery reads like a Who’s Who of Argentine history & society. The elite, an aspiring middle class, friends, enemies & those who contributed to the general welfare of Argentina all share space in a miniature city of mausoleums & monuments.

During a visit, you’ll stroll past Presidents & politicians (some naughty, some nice), Nobel Prize winners, literary greats, entertainers, scientists, military leaders, sports figures & even some who died tragically. The cemetery’s most famous resident, Eva María Duarte de Perón—simply Evita to her devotées—even had a bizarre post-mortem journey before finally resting in peace in Recoleta.

Want to learn more? Get all the details in our highly-recommended pdf guide. The authors of this blog are proud to have guided more than 1,500 people through Recoleta Cemetery… join in!

Notice: Due to recent events, all cemeteries in Buenos Aires—Recoleta, Chacarita & Flores—will not allow visitors to enter with bags or backpacks, & handbags will be inspected by security.

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541. manuel j. campos ◊

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

One of 17 children—four destined to occupy high-ranking positions in the military—Manuel Jorge Campos participated in many of the major events of his day. Breaking from the influence of older brother General Luis María Campos & establishing a distinguished career of his own, the current condition of Manuel’s tomb suggests that history has perhaps forgotten his many contributions to Argentina… just compare with Luis María five mausoleums away.

As a young man, Manuel fought & was injured in several battles during the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. Plaques at the mausoleum’s base depict those struggles:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

He also helped squash the several rebellions of Buenos Aires against the national government as well as assisted Julio Argentino Roca in the fight to acquire land from the indigenous population in 1879. But his most historic claim to fame is a still-unconfirmed conspiracy which made the 1890 Revolution against the national government fail. Manuel Campos conspired with revolutionaries, gained their trust & became their military leader. Arrested & jailed shortly before the day of attack, President Roca visited Campos in his cell… historians believe some sneaky plans formed as a result of that meeting.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

From his cell, Campos ordered the revolution to continue & fighting broke out in Buenos Aires. Only lasting four days, hundreds of people died including another Campos brother, Julio. Many believe that Campos made bad tactical decisions on purpose, throwing the revolution so Roca & his elite allies could remain in power. In spite of leading a rebellion, Campos never received any punishment. In fact, he spent the rest of his life in politics as either a Representative or Senator, supporting modernization of the military as proposed by fellow general Pablo Riccheri. On the back wall, a large plaque given by the legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires commemorates that service:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos

Of artistic merit is one of the few surviving works in Buenos Aires by Spanish painter & sculptor José Llaneces. Contemporary of Joaquín Sorolla & favored by the Spanish royal family at the beginning of the 20th century, Llaneces painted a series of murals for the Jockey Club… all destroyed in the 1953 fire set by Peronistas. A monument to Hipólito Vieytes by Llaneces sits in the neighborhood of Barracas, unseen & forgotten. The cemetery’s sculpture depicts a shrouded woman guiding a fallen soldier to heaven, perhaps Campos himself. The mausoleum received a write-up in a 1912 edition of the Spanish magazine Mundo Gráfico:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces, Mundo Gráfico
Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Manuel J. Campos, José Llaneces, Mundo Gráfico
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540. tomás guido

Occupying a prime piece of cemetery space—a wide, main axis close to the central Cristo Redentor statue—this mausoleum also attracts lots of attention thanks to an interesting design. Unfortunately its first occupant no longer resides here; you’ll have to go to the cathedral on Plaza de Mayo to pay your respects. Read on…

Born in 1788, Tomás Guido witnessed or participated in almost every major event during the creation of Argentina as an independent, new nation. He started young, defending Buenos Aires from both British invasions in 1806 & 1807 at the age of 18. Guido later accompanied Mariano Moreno on a diplomatic mission to the UK & was on board when Moreno passed away at sea. During independence wars, Guido traveled to Tucumán where he became a secretary & befriended both José de San Martín & Manuel Belgrano. Memoirs of his time with San Martín became an invaluable historic document, published in 1816. Over time, he would advance in rank & participate in the liberation of what we know as Chile & Perú.

Returning to Buenos Aires, Guido worked with the Rivadavia government during the war with Brazil. He continued to be appointed by successive leaders such as Manuel Dorrego, Juan Lavalle, Juan José Viamonte & surprisingly by both Juan Manuel de Rosas & Justo José de Urquiza at different moments. Usually involved in diplomacy & international relations, Guido passed away in 1866 in Buenos Aires after negotiating a peace agreement between Paraguay & the United States just a few years prior. His last wish was to be buried in the Andes, in remembrance of his time fighting for South American independence.

Legend claims that Guido’s second youngest child, Carlos Spano y Guido, felt so committed to his father’s final wish that he had stones brought from the Andes to build this mausoleum. We’ve yet to see any hard proof, but it’s a wonderful story. Some even insist that Carlos built the tomb himself by hand. Again, unlikely but hey… sounds great! The design of the tomb fits an era when romantic ideas were combined with images of nature, & the pintoresco style was born. Just check out a nearby tomb to Gregorio Torres with an almost identical wrought-iron door:

On the 100th anniversary of his death, descendants of Tomás Guido authorized the national government to move his remains. Guido keeps company once again with San Martín in the cathedral of Buenos Aires:

An important figure in his own right, Carlos Spano y Guido & his descendants remain buried here. Guido y Spano wrote well-received romantic prose & became director of the National Archive (plaque below dedicated to his passing). He also worked to found the Sociedad Protectora de Animales with José Pérez Mendoza. In 1946, this tomb was designated a National Historic Monument by the Perón government.

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539. benito sánchez

Beautiful panel signed by M. Pla y Vilar. Remember that morning & sunset are the best times to peek inside mausoleums to find these gems. To see more examples, type “stained glass” into the search bar. Happy holidays to everyone, & thanks very much for all the support this year. Hope you’ve enjoyed Recoleta Cemetery as much as we do!

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538. bombs & anarchists

On 14 Nov 2018 around 17:15—less than an hour before closing time—a bomb went off inside Recoleta Cemetery. Marcelo immediately sent me a message via WhatsApp & within seconds I watched the story unfold on TN’s live YouTube broadcast from my living room in Spain:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, TN Vivo

The explosion occurred in the far left corner of the cemetery at the tomb of Ramón Falcón, & initial reports mentioned one of five home-made pipe bombs exploding… severely injuring one woman who was being attended by an EMT crew onsite. Forensic police arrived to investigate the scene as well as assess any potential threat from unexploded devices. Later that day, the following photos were released via the national news agency, Télam:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, bombing, Ramón Falcón, Télam

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, bombing, Ramón Falcón, Télam

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, bombing, Ramón Falcón, Télam

The story wasn’t difficult to put together. The injured woman, 34-year old Anahí Esperanza Salcedo, had been responsible for the bombing & suffered facial damage as well as the loss of three fingers when the device exploded early… apparently while taking a selfie.

Salcedo entered the cemetery with Hugo Alberto Rodríguez, both disguised with wigs & sunglasses. They identify as anarchists & wanted to destroy the tomb of Falcón, who had been assassinated by an anarchist 109 years ago. In the end, the tomb survived while Salcedo remains in critical condition.

Police officials consider this crime linked to another pipe bomb thrown into the front patio of the home of judge Claudio Bonadio later that same day. Bonadio is currently investigating charges of bribery & money laundering involving members of the previous government, including former President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. The following day federal police raided the anarchists’ base of operations in the Buenos Aires neighborhood of San Cristóbal & arrested 10 individuals after finding material used to make pipe bombs.

Marcelo went to Recoleta Cemetery to assess the situation two days after the bombing occurred. The first change he noticed is that bags are now being inspected at the entrance gate. While we aren’t sure if this checkpoint will become permanent, be prepared to have your belongings searched until further notice. Marcelo also confirmed the correct time of the bombing, misreported in local media as around 18:00… impossible since the cemetery promptly closes at that time every day. Forensic police were still working the scene during his visit:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, entrance gate, Marcelo Metayer

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Marcelo Metayer

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Marcelo Metayer

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Marcelo Metayer

Marcelo also heard people ask in several different languages where the explosion had taken place. Word had quickly spread about the incident. He’ll return next week for an update, so stay tuned! In the meantime, tombs that are located inside the orange dashed line on the map below cannot be visited. This corresponds to locations numbered 41 to 44 in the PDF guide:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, affected section from bombing

During 19 years of visiting & documenting Recoleta Cemetery, neither Marcelo nor I ever imagined this kind of violence taking place inside. Some speculate that it may be an attempt to disrupt an otherwise calm city preceding the G-20 summit. Whatever the reason, one lesson that Recoleta Cemetery demonstrates through almost 200 years of history is that violence is never the means to an end. And you can’t kill someone twice!

Update (22 Nov 2018): Apparently all cemeteries in Buenos Aires—Recoleta, Chacarita & Flores—will not allow visitors to enter with bags or backpacks, & handbags will be inspected by security. Photo courtesy of Susana Gesualdi:

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Susana Gesualdi, notice

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537. familia olegario v. andrade

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

During the period of national organization after independence from Spain, many families had to make a difficult decision: support a Confederation of provinces or a Buenos Aires-based government. Escalating into civil war, factions split between Urquiza & Rosas… in fact, many people on both sides are buried in Recoleta Cemetery & this blog dedicates a lot of text to this period. Based in the province of Entre Ríos & firm Urquiza supporters, the Andrade family was forced to leave Argentina. They made their way to neighboring Brazil where Olegario Víctor Andrade was born in 1839. After the 1853 defeat of Rosas, his family returned to Argentina & settled in the riverside town of Gualeguaychú.

Olegario finished his early studies in the nearby town of Concepción del Uruguay & became friends with a future President Julio Argentino Roca… as well as with others who would go on to become important national leaders such as Victorino de la Plaza & Eduardo Wilde. Olegario demonstrated a gift for writing poetry even at this early age, often writing about national events. Although he worked in journalism at first, he eventually moved into provincial politics. In 1859 at the age of 21, Andrade became personal secretary for President Santiago Derqui & put his pen to good use in criticizing Bartolomé Mitre & the War of the Triple Alliance.

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

Although his political career continued with a number of ups & downs, Andrade achieved major recognition for his poem “El nido de cóndores” which was read to the public at the Teatro Colón in 1877. This work uses an imaginary dialogue with condors to praise the crossing of the Andes by José de San Martín & his troops during independence. A monument in Plaza San Martín in Andrade’s hometown of Gualeguaychú commemorates this very poem:

Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos, Plaza San Martín, Olegario Víctor Andrade, El Nido de Cóndores

Andrade continued to write epic historical poetry. Of note is “San Martín“, discussing the general’s move to Europe & consequent disappearance from national narrative. This poem was written when Sarmiento repatriated the general’s remains in 1877, & the section below addresses the recovery of San Martín’s rightful place in national history:

¡Salud al vencedor! ¡Salud al grande
Entre los grandes héroes! Exclamaban
Civiles turbas, militares greyes,
Con ardiente alborozo,
En la vieja ciudad de los Virreyes.–
Y el vencedor huía,
Con firme paso y actitud serena,
A confiar a las ondas de los mares
Los profundos secretos de su pena.–

La ingratitud, la envidia,
La sospecha cobarde, que persiguen
Como nubes tenaces,
Al sol del genio humano,
Fueron siguiendo el rastro de sus pasos
A través del Oceano,
Ansiosas de cerrarle los caminos
Del poder y la gloria,
¡Sin acordarse, ¡torpes! de cerrarle
El seguro camino de la historia!

……….

Here’s to the victor! Here’s to the greatest
Among all great heroes! Exclaimed
Multitudes of citizens, military troops,
With heartfelt joy,
In the old city of the Vicerroys.-
And the victor fled,
With convincing step and serene demeanor,
To trust to the waves of the seas
The deep secrets of his sorrow.-

Ingratitude, envy,
Cowardly suspicion, that followed
Like tenacious clouds,
To the sun of human genius,
They pursued the track of his footsteps
Across the Ocean,
Anxious to block the path
Of power and glory,
Without remembering, fools!, to close off
The sure path of history!

Andrade passed away from a stroke in 1882. His former high school friend Roca—then President—spoke at the funeral, & five years later Congress published a compilation of Andrade’s works. Today however, those works are unfortunately less well known as can be seen by the poor condition of his family mausoleum (in spite of being declared a National Historic Monument). Also buried here are his daughter, Agustina, & her husband, Ramón Lista, an early explorer of Patagonia who deserves a post of his own. Perhaps next month…

Buenos Aires, Recoleta Cemetery, Olegario Víctor Andrade

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